Advancing Epigenetics Towards Systems Biology

Glossary

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Term Definition
X chromosome
A chromosome associated with sex determination. In most animals, the female has two, and the male has one X chromosome.
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X-inactivation
Leads to clumped chromatin termed Barr bodies, which are generally considered inert.
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X-linked alpha thalaasemia/mental retardation (ATR X) syndro
Caused by mutations in the ATR X gene. ATR X syndrome is characterised by severe learning difficulties, a characteristic facial appearance, abnormal genitalia and alpha thalassemia. The ATR protein affects the 3D structure of chromatin in the nucleus.
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Xist
The gene responsible for X-inactivation. Xist makes a long RNA transcript that literally sticks along one of every pair of X-chromosomes switching most genes off.
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