Advancing Epigenetics Towards Systems Biology

Glossary

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Term Definition
Recessive
One member of an allelic pair lacking the ability to manifest itself (unable to determine the phenotype) when the other or dominant member is present.
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Recombination
1. The exchange of chromosomal segments that occurs when homologous DNA sequences become closely associated. This is how the genetic information from mother and father changes in every generation to give genetically unique offspring. 2. Molecular process representing double strand break (DSB) DNA repair. Homologous recombination (HR), involves two homologous DNA double strands that may or may not result in crossing over of the initial DNA strands.
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Regulatory elements
DNA sequences to which regulatory proteins like transcription factors bind. They are classed as promoters, enhancers, silencers, chromatin insulators or cellular memory modules (CMMs).
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Repressed allele
An allele which is in the “off” state, or is repressed.
Repression
When expression of an allele is blocked.
Reproductive cloning
A form of artificial reproduction technique based on cloning.
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Rhabdoid tumour
Very agressive form of tumour originally described as a variant of Wilms' tumors.
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Ribosomal gene
One of several tandemly arranged genes each encoding an rRNA molecule that is a structural and ribozymatic component of ribosomes.
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Ribosome
Protein factory in eukaryotes located outside of the cell nucleus. The particle is cmposed of ribosomal RNAs and ribosomal proteins and it associates with mRNA to catalyze the synthesis of protein.
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RNA
Ribonucleic acid. Polymer formed from covalently linked ribonucleotide monomers.
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RNA interference
Mechanism of gene silencing. Small double-stranded RNA sequences interrupt the process of translation (mRNA->protein) thus preventing gene expression.
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RNA silencing
See RNA interference.
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