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DNA frequently becomes methylated by an enzyme called DNA methyltransferase. DNA methylation is a type of chemical modification which involves the addition of a methyl group to the carbon-5 of the cytosine pyrimidine ring. This methyl group can be sensed by proteins which then themselves modify other proteins posttranslationally. The pattern of posttranslational ...
Section: Content | Category: FAQ common | Date: Friday, 16 September 2011 | Hits: 4931
... genome ever sequenced, N. equitans has proteins that are strikingly similar to the histone proteins within eukaryotic cells. Scientists at the University of Regensburg in Germany have been studying one such protein in this parasitic microbe. It is most similar to histone H3: one of the five kinds of histone protein involved in the structure of chromatin ...
Section: Content | Category: In brief | Date: Monday, 01 December 2008 | Hits: 12919
... DNA becomes protein, the code must be transcribed through RNA. In addition to this role, short RNA molecules (not long enough to specify a protein product) play a helping hand in the direction of immune proteins. For decades scientists have been aware that plants infected with a virus are resistant to infection by the same or related viruses, but not ...
Section: Content | Category: In brief | Date: Monday, 01 September 2008 | Hits: 13110
... couple along DNA backbone (pink), which in turn coils intimately around histone proteins (blue and white) to form chromosomes (red) in the nucleus.Artwork by Nicolas Bouvier Brona McVittie reports :: June 2006 Over 50 years have passed since Watson and Crick first published the three-dimensional structure of the DNA double helix. With Darwinian ...
Section: Content | Category: In brief | Date: Thursday, 01 June 2006 | Hits: 18619
... The team knew from previous studies in rats that parenting has a measurable physical impact on behavioural responses to stress. The way a mother treats her pups determines the extent to which certain proteins get made from DNA. In particular the team has studied expression of glucocorticoid receptors, low levels of which are associated with mood disorders. ...
Section: Content | Category: In brief | Date: Monday, 02 February 2009 | Hits: 13320
... proteins (histones). Epigenetic modifications do not change the DNA code itself, but rather, influence the availability of the code to the factors that read it and translate it into its product. Hence epigenetic modifications can make a gene accessible and thus increase the amount that it is read (increase the level of product), or make it inaccessible ...
Section: Content | Category: In brief | Date: Friday, 01 September 2006 | Hits: 19176
Response written by: Elphège Nora, PhD - postdoctoral researcher in Edith Heard's laboratory, Institut Curie Each cell of the body produces molecules known as proteins. The structure of proteins is directly encoded by the cells' genes. In humans, genes are very similar from one individual to another but there are not completely identical. This means ...
Section: Content | Category: FAQ common | Date: Friday, 09 November 2012 | Hits: 4522
... Reader in X- ray Chrystallography. High-protein science Dorothy dedicated most of her research career to mapping the structure of proteins and other biological substances. Insulin was her toughest and most rewarding challenge. The complex and multifaceted hormone captured her imagination because of the intricate and wide-ranging effect it has on the ...
Section: Content | Category: Women in science | Date: Friday, 03 May 2013 | Hits: 6217
... what protein to make. These proteins build our cells, and ultimately—us. However, the environment surrouding our DNA can influence it, and it can also influence how some genes are used by the cell. Epigenetics studies these changes in how genes are used that can be passed from cell to cell, but that are not due to changes to the DNA sequence. These ...
Section: Content | Category: Features | Date: Thursday, 18 July 2013 | Hits: 23073
... FlickrCC licenced by Researchers once thought the proteins that stick to epigenetic marks fell into two camps: "repressors", which turn gene activity off, and "activators", which turn gene activity on. But a flurry of findings over the past 5 years has pointed to a far more complex picture. Rather than being simple "on" or "off" switches, epigenetic ...
Section: Content | Category: Features | Date: Thursday, 04 April 2013 | Hits: 22755
... know that the DNA sequence information stored in our genomes (the genetic code) is the same in all cells of our body, but this information is used differently in different cell types. One reason for this is that access to it is limited by chemical modifications such as DNA methylation, as well as the proteins that DNA is wrapped around (called histones) ...
Section: Content | Category: Features | Date: Tuesday, 05 March 2013 | Hits: 15268
... and production headquarters housed there. About 40 miles of information, coded onto fine thread is crammed inside the inner city, but it's only about the size of a tennis ball. The knowledge of how to produce about 23,000 products (proteins) is encompassed within this coded information (DNA), but the city only really produces around 10-20% of that for ...
Section: Content | Category: Features | Date: Wednesday, 14 November 2012 | Hits: 34317
... biochemical flavour. A variety of small molecules can affect the nuclear infrastructure by adhering to both DNA and associated histone proteins. Such flavours are influenced by the environment, most notably our diet. Biochemical fine-tuning of the genome determines which genes get switched on, so twins are not necessarily destined to share the same ...
Section: Content | Category: In brief | Date: Thursday, 01 June 2006 | Hits: 16482
... that there are subtle differences beyond the DNA sequences of silent and active genes. They differ in the way that nearby DNA is methylated. This affects which proteins can bind to the DNA and activate genes. Mum's IGF2 gene (not methylated) is silenced by a repressor protein that binds to DNA. Dad's chromosome is methylated near the IGF2 gene, which ...
Section: Content | Category: Features | Date: Friday, 01 August 2008 | Hits: 34201
... way DNA is wrapped up in the nucleus. DNA wraps around proteins called histones, like cotton around a spool, to make a package called chromatin. The characteristic features that change chromatin packaging are mostly chemical changes, either to the DNA itself, by the methylation of individual DNA bases; or to the histone packaging proteins they are wound ...
Section: Content | Category: Features | Date: Friday, 01 August 2008 | Hits: 26995