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... them which genes to express. If your DNA were written as a book, then histone modifications and methylation marks could be imagined as a collection of post-it notes stuck throughout every chapter, providing another level of information without changing the way DNA itself was written. Methylation is one of the more well-studied modifications, since scientists ...
Section: Content | Category: Features | Date: Wednesday, 14 November 2012 | Hits: 34462
... as DNA methylation. Drugs that effectively reverse this silencing by altering such epigenetic marks on DNA are currently being tested. Research of this nature could lead to new cancer therapies based on reactivating or restoring the function of ATOH1 and/or other master genes that play similar roles in the maturation of cells. ...
Section: Content | Category: In brief | Date: Monday, 02 February 2009 | Hits: 12387
... starting to understand the biological implications of psychological abuse," confirms Moshe Szyf (McGill University, Quebec). Even though the genes we inherit from our parents remain with us throughout our lives, epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation can shape their effects on us. Epigenetic changes can be environmentally triggered and markedly ...
Section: Content | Category: In brief | Date: Monday, 02 February 2009 | Hits: 13356
... DNA methylation patterns play a role in all sorts of phenomena where genes are switched on or off, from the splash of purple on a petunia petal to the growth of cancerous tumours. Failure to silence genes can produce a hazardous cacophony. Too little DNA methylation can alter the arrangement of chromatin. This, in turn, affects which genes are silenced ...
Section: Content | Category: In brief | Date: Thursday, 01 June 2006 | Hits: 18650
... know that the DNA sequence information stored in our genomes (the genetic code) is the same in all cells of our body, but this information is used differently in different cell types. One reason for this is that access to it is limited by chemical modifications such as DNA methylation, as well as the proteins that DNA is wrapped around (called histones) ...
Section: Content | Category: Features | Date: Tuesday, 05 March 2013 | Hits: 15327
... possibility that these are reversible," says Bird. The discovery in 1999 (1) that MeCP2 was faulty in at least 95% of girls with Rett syndrome was the first link between intellectual disability and a particular kind of epigenetic mark called DNA methylation. These marks are added at certain points on the DNA itself, and usually reduce the activity ...
Section: Content | Category: Features | Date: Thursday, 04 April 2013 | Hits: 22880
... are on or off. One of the ways this is achieved is via DNA methylation, a biological process where the DNA is chemically tagged to silence genes. DNA methylation marks are laid down in each egg during their development in the ovaries and, after fertilisation, some of these marks are passed onto the fetus and placenta. In exploring the purpose of this ...
Section: Content | Category: News | Date: Wednesday, 27 January 2016 | Hits: 2808
... their DNA methylation in a sex-specific manner, in the oocyte and in the sperm. Then indeed, while the rest of the genome is subject to a wave of DNA demethylation after fertilization, as part of the "rebooting" of the embryonic genome, imprinted genes have this special ability to maintain their parent-specific DNA methylation in the embryo. The underlying ...
Section: Content | Category: FAQ common | Date: Wednesday, 02 April 2014 | Hits: 5037
Yes they do! And this ability of methyl groups to be copied at each round of DNA replication is what makes DNA methylation "epigenetics": the information carried by these methyl groups is faithfully and autonomously transmitted from the mother cell to its daughter cells. There is a specialized enzymatic complex, the DNA methylltransferase 1 (DNMT1), ...
Section: Content | Category: FAQ common | Date: Wednesday, 02 April 2014 | Hits: 8045
... himself with insulin for some time afterwards. The doctors were unable to make a specific diagnosis. Had they been equipped with better diagnostic tools, such as are offered by new advances in epigenetic research, they might have been able to profile the twins to see whether DNA methylation patterns were involved. Many diseases have a known genetic ...
Section: Content | Category: In brief | Date: Thursday, 01 June 2006 | Hits: 16518
... the hereditary genetic material. Gene sequencing revolution begins. Science takes on the view that we are the sum of our gene sequences. Epigenetics research flourishes. Scientists realize it's not just our DNA sequence that controls our biological make-up. DNA methylation and histone modifications are recognized as important regulators ...
Section: Content | Category: In brief | Date: Thursday, 01 June 2006 | Hits: 58429
... they have done their job. Such a status can be triggered and maintained by an epigenetic tag. In our example the tag is the methylation of cytosine. Genes which are methylated by a DNA methyltransferase are recognized by the protein MeCP2 which binds to the methylated nucleotides. This protein is complexed with histone deacetylase. Once MeCP2 binds ...
Section: Content | Category: FAQ common | Date: Friday, 16 September 2011 | Hits: 15142
DNA frequently becomes methylated by an enzyme called DNA methyltransferase. DNA methylation is a type of chemical modification which involves the addition of a methyl group to the carbon-5 of the cytosine pyrimidine ring. This methyl group can be sensed by proteins which then themselves modify other proteins posttranslationally. The pattern of posttranslational ...
Section: Content | Category: FAQ common | Date: Friday, 16 September 2011 | Hits: 4934
... way DNA is wrapped up in the nucleus. DNA wraps around proteins called histones, like cotton around a spool, to make a package called chromatin. The characteristic features that change chromatin packaging are mostly chemical changes, either to the DNA itself, by the methylation of individual DNA bases; or to the histone packaging proteins they are wound ...
Section: Content | Category: Features | Date: Friday, 01 August 2008 | Hits: 27117
... be modified through acetylation or methylation and serve as transmitters of such information. Such chemical modification patterns are called epigenetic tags. ...
Section: Content | Category: FAQ common | Date: Tuesday, 13 September 2011 | Hits: 6210