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... genome ever sequenced, N. equitans has proteins that are strikingly similar to the histone proteins within eukaryotic cells. Scientists at the University of Regensburg in Germany have been studying one such protein in this parasitic microbe. It is most similar to histone H3: one of the five kinds of histone protein involved in the structure of chromatin ...
Section: Content | Category: In brief | Date: Monday, 01 December 2008 | Hits: 12956
Histone proteins can be modified as epigenetic tags by modifying enzymes in a substrate-specific manner. Prominent are methylation, acetylation and phosphorylation of specific Lysines, Arginines and Serines within the aminoacid sequences of the tails of histones. Imprinting, or silencing, is the suppression of certain genes on chromosomes, depending ...
Section: Content | Category: FAQ common | Date: Friday, 16 September 2011 | Hits: 8294
... proteins (histones). Epigenetic modifications do not change the DNA code itself, but rather, influence the availability of the code to the factors that read it and translate it into its product. Hence epigenetic modifications can make a gene accessible and thus increase the amount that it is read (increase the level of product), or make it inaccessible ...
Section: Content | Category: In brief | Date: Friday, 01 September 2006 | Hits: 19212
... are necessary to tease DNA away from nucleosomes, little histone bundles also described (at least in part) by Kornberg. These basic units of chromatin (seen as beads on a string in the picture above) are common to most cells with a nucleus i.e. not bacteria, and are instrumental in gene regulation. Around 150 base-pairs of DNA encircle every histone ...
Section: Content | Category: In brief | Date: Monday, 02 October 2006 | Hits: 19202
By Dr Lindsey Goff Cancer is not just one disease with one cause. There are billions of cells in our body each home to a multitude of tightly-controlled biochemical activities. So there are numerous points where control can break down and cause cancer [...] A model of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzyme, the target of a new class of drugs By ...
Section: Content | Category: In brief | Date: Tuesday, 01 August 2006 | Hits: 16569
... couple along DNA backbone (pink), which in turn coils intimately around histone proteins (blue and white) to form chromosomes (red) in the nucleus.Artwork by Nicolas Bouvier Brona McVittie reports :: June 2006 Over 50 years have passed since Watson and Crick first published the three-dimensional structure of the DNA double helix. With Darwinian ...
Section: Content | Category: In brief | Date: Thursday, 01 June 2006 | Hits: 18650
... biochemical flavour. A variety of small molecules can affect the nuclear infrastructure by adhering to both DNA and associated histone proteins. Such flavours are influenced by the environment, most notably our diet. Biochemical fine-tuning of the genome determines which genes get switched on, so twins are not necessarily destined to share the same ...
Section: Content | Category: In brief | Date: Thursday, 01 June 2006 | Hits: 16518
... with Dr Massimo Crippa investigated whether relocation of the uPA gene during activation was accompanied by changes in chromatin structure that might facilitate transcription. Surprisingly, they found that even before the gene was chemically induced, the regulatory regions of uPA were already open: histone modifications associated with gene activity ...
Section: Content | Category: In brief | Date: Monday, 01 March 2010 | Hits: 11719
9. Primed
... play an important role in controlling cell proliferation. Although switching on of the genes occurs late in this process, the enhancer is already marked by active histone modifications in ES cells. These modifications are specifically targeted to the enhancer by Sox2, one of the four factors used to generate pluripotent stem cells. Foxd3, which also ...
Section: Content | Category: In brief | Date: Tuesday, 01 June 2010 | Hits: 12581
... "If you put MeCP2 back, you restore the efficiency at which they operate." This all fits in with findings emerging from other areas of epigenetics. One of these concerns histones, the bobbin-like proteins around which the DNA in your cells is wound. As well as packaging and protecting DNA, histones help to control the activity of the genes contained ...
Section: Content | Category: Features | Date: Thursday, 04 April 2013 | Hits: 22875
... histone modifications in tissues between old and young persons, for example, but, what does this mean? "It is not clear if it is the modification that changes because of the aging process or some other reasons or if it is the modifications that are changing and they are actually contributing to the aging process". So it's a question of the chicken ...
Section: Content | Category: Features | Date: Thursday, 18 July 2013 | Hits: 23191
... know that the DNA sequence information stored in our genomes (the genetic code) is the same in all cells of our body, but this information is used differently in different cell types. One reason for this is that access to it is limited by chemical modifications such as DNA methylation, as well as the proteins that DNA is wrapped around (called histones) ...
Section: Content | Category: Features | Date: Tuesday, 05 March 2013 | Hits: 15327
Geneviève Almouzni, scientific coordinator of EpiGeneSys and deputy director of research and training director at the the Institut Curie has been awarded the 2013 FEBS I EMBO Women in Science Award. Professor Almouzni has been recognised for her outstanding contributions to research in the area of histones and chromatin, her engagements in promoting ...
Section: Content | Category: News | Date: Friday, 22 February 2013 | Hits: 4070
... 548 (Apr 5-11, 1984). Histone proteins take up color, making chromatin visiblePhoto from sciencephoto.com Not only is it amazing how all that DNA fits in such a tiny space, it’s also fascinating to imagine how the DNA must be organized in some kind of logical way to ensure that regions that have to be accessed by various machineries can ...
Section: Content | Category: Features | Date: Wednesday, 14 November 2012 | Hits: 34462
... score) stained with an antibody for a methylated amino acid within histone H4Photo by David Seligson, courtesy of Siavash Kurdistani, UCLA Department of Biological Chemistry, LA, USA Cancer affects everyone: young or old, rich or poor. Well over a tenth of global deaths in the year 2000 were caused by malignant tumours. Even if you never get cancer, ...
Section: Content | Category: In brief | Date: Thursday, 01 June 2006 | Hits: 15844