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Chromatin is the molecular substance of a chromosome. It consists of a complex of DNA, RNA and protein in eukaryotic cells. Frequently, people encounter pictures of chromosomes which have a striped pattern of stronger and lighter staining. What are these chromosome bands? Do they represent genes? No, they do not necessarily represent genes nor do they ...
Section: Content | Category: FAQ common | Date: Friday, 16 September 2011 | Hits: 57394
... sac – also have the potential to reprogram mature cells. However, the reprogrammed cells they produce differ from those programmed by normal ES cells, reflecting the different provenance of the cells used. The researchers were investigating the development of mouse embryos to see how chromatin – the package of DNA and protein in a cell's nucleus – ...
Section: Content | Category: In brief | Date: Monday, 01 March 2010 | Hits: 11798
... with Dr Massimo Crippa investigated whether relocation of the uPA gene during activation was accompanied by changes in chromatin structure that might facilitate transcription. Surprisingly, they found that even before the gene was chemically induced, the regulatory regions of uPA were already open: histone modifications associated with gene activity ...
Section: Content | Category: In brief | Date: Monday, 01 March 2010 | Hits: 11720
... genome ever sequenced, N. equitans has proteins that are strikingly similar to the histone proteins within eukaryotic cells. Scientists at the University of Regensburg in Germany have been studying one such protein in this parasitic microbe. It is most similar to histone H3: one of the five kinds of histone protein involved in the structure of chromatin ...
Section: Content | Category: In brief | Date: Monday, 01 December 2008 | Hits: 12957
... unrelated viruses. We now know that this immunity results from the presence of short silencing RNAs that are derived from the viral genome. These RNAs guide a protein called Argonaute to destroy the RNA of related viruses that might infect the plant. Coupled with that, there is an impact on the transcription of DNA at a chromatin level. More generally, ...
Section: Content | Category: In brief | Date: Monday, 01 September 2008 | Hits: 13136
... are necessary to tease DNA away from nucleosomes, little histone bundles also described (at least in part) by Kornberg. These basic units of chromatin (seen as beads on a string in the picture above) are common to most cells with a nucleus i.e. not bacteria, and are instrumental in gene regulation. Around 150 base-pairs of DNA encircle every histone ...
Section: Content | Category: In brief | Date: Monday, 02 October 2006 | Hits: 19203
7. Primed
... differentiate along specialised lineages. A good analogy is the difference between a car sitting at a red traffic light with its engine revved up, and trying to start a car from cold on a frosty winter morning. A study carried out by the Gene Regulation and Chromatin Group at the MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, led by Niall Dillon, has provided new information ...
Section: Content | Category: In brief | Date: Tuesday, 01 June 2010 | Hits: 12582
... effect variegation. It turned out that the gene had been juxtaposed next to repressive chromatin, called heterochromatin, which would sometimes spread into the gene during development and switch it off. Once this happened, it would stay off, giving patches of white cells. This is another example of the same gene behaving in two opposite ways due to ...
Section: Content | Category: Features | Date: Wednesday, 14 November 2012 | Hits: 34462
... an inch" (2). The way that DNA is compacted, packaged, and organized using these helper proteins can affect how it is used by the cell—DNA plus its helper proteins is called chromatin. "[Epigenetic modifications] can be regarded as a coat, put on the genome by developmental and life history of the organism and the cell," says Jing-Dong Jackie Han, ...
Section: Content | Category: Features | Date: Thursday, 18 July 2013 | Hits: 23192
... analysis of repetitive elements is really challenging. Our collaboration actually started at one of the EpiGeneSys annual meetings, which put Juanma and I in contact in a very stimulating environment. Because we are both RISE members, I guess it was 'natural' to undertake this collaboration together. Apart from our findings on chromatin regulation for ...
Section: Content | Category: News | Date: Wednesday, 19 August 2015 | Hits: 4462
... and packaging it to form chromatin. Epigenetics (literally over or above genetics) refers to the extra layers of instructions that influence gene activity without altering the DNA sequence. There are three main components to the epigenetic code: (1) methylated cytosine residues in DNA (2); (2) the range of post-translational modifications to the core ...
Section: Content | Category: Features | Date: Tuesday, 05 March 2013 | Hits: 15327
Geneviève Almouzni, scientific coordinator of EpiGeneSys and deputy director of research and training director at the the Institut Curie has been awarded the 2013 FEBS I EMBO Women in Science Award. Professor Almouzni has been recognised for her outstanding contributions to research in the area of histones and chromatin, her engagements in promoting ...
Section: Content | Category: News | Date: Friday, 22 February 2013 | Hits: 4070
... through mitosis and/or meiosis, but also flexible, in order to respond to changing signals from the environment, respond to changes throughout the cell cycle, etc. So for example, mathematical modeling of the changes in dynamic binding of epigenetic regulators to chromatin will hopefully shed light on how the biological system—the cell—enables seemingly ...
Section: Content | Category: In brief | Date: Friday, 16 November 2012 | Hits: 21070
Over 50 years have passed since Watson and Crick first published the three-dimensional structure of the DNA double helix. With Darwinian evolutionary theory now so widespread, the discovery that DNA encodes hereditary characteristics has proven popular. [...] Artist’s impression of chromatin commissioned by Geneviève Almouzni. Base pairs (yellow) ...
Section: Content | Category: In brief | Date: Thursday, 01 June 2006 | Hits: 18651
... nature of chromatin at telomeres. The biochemical status of histone proteins at telomeric DNA seems to keep the ends safe from the action of enzymes that could either build or break them. The results of such research will no doubt be crucial to any anti-cancer initiatives focussed on blocking telomerase activity. Edinburgh Castle, Scotland ...
Section: Content | Category: Features | Date: Friday, 01 August 2008 | Hits: 38769